Viticulture Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Comparative study of qualitative and quantitative characters of grape cultivar 'Mavrodafni' (Vitis vinifera L.) and 'Renio' grown in different regions of the Protected Designation of Origin Mavrodafni Patras
expand article infoKaterina Biniari, Ioannis Daskalakis, Despoina Bouza, Maritina Stavrakaki
‡ Laboratory of Viticulture, Department of Crop Science, School of Agricultural Production, Infrastructure and Environment, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Open Access

Abstract

Background

'Mavrodafni' (Vitis vinifera L.) is considered one of the oldest grapevine cultivars indigenous to the Greek vineyards, with western Peloponnese being its primary centre of cultivation. 'Renio' is considered to be either a biotype of 'Mavrodafni' or an altogether different cultivar. Both 'Mavrodafni' and 'Renio' can be found in the vineyards of the areas of cultivation, since 'Renio' is considered to be more productive compared to 'Mavrodafni' and, for this reason, it has gradually replaced 'Mavrodafni' from cultivation over the course of time.

New information

'Mavrodafni' and 'Renio' contain appreciable amounts of quality characters of grape and must in terms of total polyphenol and total anthocyanins content in berry skins, depending on the different regions where they are cultivated and they would be worthy of further study and use for the production of different types of wines.

Keywords

anthocyanins, grape skins, must, polyphenols, tannins, Vitis vinifera L.

Introduction

The Pelopponnese peninsula is one of the oldest grapevine producing regions of Greece, hosting a great variety of cultivars across its vineyeards, some of which are of primary importance for the Greek vine producing industry as whole.

During the past years, the problems related to the knowledge of varietal potential, as well as to sanitation of grapevine propagating material, have increased to such an extent that they threaten the viticultural production, as well as the establishment of productive vineyards.

In addition, in the wider viticultural Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) region Mavrodafni Patras, factors such as the application of cultivation techniques related to vineyard management resulting in increased yield (per ha), raise questions regarding the quality of wine products, as well as regarding the overall future of viticulture in the region.

In view of climate change and the depletion of natural resources due to the intensification of vine growing, it is imperative that inputs be reduced.

'Mavrodafni' is a significant red grapevine cultivar with the Peloponnese and the Ionian islands being its cultivation centres. It has been described as 'Mavrodaphne' (Guillon 1896, Viala and Vermorel 1909) and as 'Mavrodaphni noir' (Rovasenda 1887). It is a very vigorous grapevine cultivar of medium yield capacity. However, it is characterised by intense poor fruit set and this demands the use of specific cultivation techniques that increase cultivation cost (Stavrakakis 2010).

'Renio' is considered either a biotype of Mavrodafni or an altogether different cultivar. A study that employed molecular markers showed that they are different cultivars (Stavrakaki and Biniari 2009). 'Renio' is less vigorous, less qualitative, but more productive compared to 'Mavrodafni' and does not require specific cultivation techniques. For this reason, it has gradually replaced 'Mavrodafni' from cultivation over the course of time or, in some cases, it is co-cultivated with 'Mavrodafni', with adverse effects on the quality of the wine.

General description

Purpose: 

The aim of the present study was to assay the mechanical properties, the polyphenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of skin extracts and must of berries of 'Mavrodafni' and 'Renio', cultivated in the same vineyard, as well as in the different regions of cultivation of the PDO Mavrodafni Patras (See Suppl. material 1).

Additional information: 

'Mavrodafni' recorded the highest content in skin total phenolics, skin total anthocyanins and skin total tannins in all studied regions, with a significant difference compared to 'Renio' (Tables 2, 3, 4).

Cultivars studied and vineyards’ characteristics.

a/a

Cultivar

Vineyard

Training system

Age

Altitude

1

Mavrodafni

Arla

Cordon

20 years

600 m

2

Renio Arla

Arla

Cordon

20 years

600 m

3

Mavrodafni

Fostaina

Cordon

6 years

400 m

4

Mavrodafni

Karantzas

Cordon

30 years

200 m

5

Renio

Karantzas

n/a

30 years

200 m

6

Mavrodafni

Karyes

Cordon

5 years

n/a

7

Renio

Karyes

Cordon

5 years

n/a

8

Mavrodafni

Katw Mylos

n/a

n/a

n/a

9

Renio

Katw Mylos

n/a

n/a

n/a

10

Mavrodafni

Linos

n/a

30 years

0 m

Characters of the must.

pH Sugars Total Titr. Acidity
Mavrodafni_Arla 3.17 ± 0.00g 17.16 ± 0.03f 6.75 ± 0.00ab
Renio_Arla 3.15 ±0.00g 12.06 ± 0.06h 5.50 ± 0.25de
Mavrodafni_Fostaina 3.71 ± 0.00b 18.90 ± 0.00c 5.25 ± 0.00e
Mavrodafni_Karantzas 3.39 ± 0.00f 17.43 ± 0.03d 6.25 ± 0.12bc
Renio_Karantzas 3.56 ± 0.00d 18.50 ± 0.00e 6.00 ± 0.00cd
Mavrodafni_Karyes 3.44 ± 0.00e 12.26 ± 0.03g 6.62 ± 0.12ab
Renio_Karyes 3.39 ± 0.00h 12.36 ± 0.03g 7.00 ± 0.25a
Mavrodafni_KatwMylos 3.56 ± 0.00d 21.76 ± 0.00a 5.25 ± 0.00e
Renio_KatwMylos 3.74 ± 0.00a 21.76 ± 0.03b 4.50 ± 0.00f
Mavrodafni_Linos 3.65 ± 0.00c 21.80 ± 0.00b 5.25 ± 0.00e

Mechanical properties of the bunch.

Bunch length Bunch width Bunch weight
Mavrodafni_Arla 19.66 ± 1.85ab 9.66 ± 0.66abc 248.33 ± 54.63abc
Renio_Arla 18.66 ± 0.88abc 8.26 ± 0.37bc 251.66 ± 32.05abc
Mavrodafni_Fostaina 17.00 ± 1.73abcd 9.00 ± 0.57bc 300.00 ± 10.69ab
Mavrodafni_Karantzas 13.90 ± 0.10cd 9.50 ± 0.76abc 165.33 ± 6.33cd
Renio_Karantzas 15.33 ± 1.76abcd 6.00 ± 0.57c 208.00 ± 13.52bcd
Mavrodafni_Karyes 18.00 ± 0.57abcd 13.33 ± 1.66a 259.66 ± 38.80abc
Renio_Karyes 20.33 ± 0.66a 10.83 ± 0.16ab 291.33 ± 25.72abc
Mavrodafni_KatwMylos 13.66 ± 0.66cd 9.16 ± 0.92abc 223.00 ± 8.73abcd
Renio_KatwMylos 13.00 ± 0.00d 8.33 ± 0.60bc 168.00 ± 24.09bcd
Mavrodafni_Linos 14.83 ± 1.09bcd 5.50 ± 0.28c 90.66 ± 3.52d

Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in berry skins.

Skin total phenolics (mg catechin/g f.w.) Skin total anthocyanins (mg malvidin/g f.w.) Skin total flavanols (mg catechin/g f.w.) Skin total tannins (mg catechin/g f.w.) Skin total flavonoids (mg catechin/g f.w) Skin total flavones (mg rutin/g f.w.) Antioxidant capacity (mg trolox/g f.w.)
Mavrodafni_Arla 52.20 ± 3.44d 12.60 ± 0.48b 3.79 ± 0.06b 61.63 ± 2.50b 8.96 ± 0.70d 1.89 ± 0.08abc 63.25 ± 0.98cd
Renio_Arla 54.40 ± 0.57d 5.76 ± 0.20f 4.06 ± 0.04a 63.45 ± 1.18ab 9.10 ± 0.61cd 1.35 ± 0.10cd 65.07 ± 0.49c
Mavrodafni_Fostaina 61.52 ± 3.16cd 11.20 ± 0.31bcd 3.36 ± 0.03cd 68.07 ± 1.34ab 5.95 ± 0.35e 1.60 ± 0.10bcd 64.89 ± 0.73c
Mavrodafni_Karantzas 60.40 ± 1.52cd 13.00 ± 0.24b 3.14 ± 0.02e 68.87 ± 0.85a 5.70 ± 0.23e 1.72 ± 0.18abcd 57.80 ± 0.82d
Renio_Karantzas 91.36 ± 1.45a 8.20 ± 0.42ef 3.79 ± 0.01b 31.89 ± 1.45cd 11.50 ± 0.22ab 2.13 ± 0.06ab 64.49 ± 0.34c
Mavrodafni_Karyes 64.40 ± 1.31c 11.88 ± 0.60bc 3.19 ± 0.05de 70.54 ± 1.24a 5.63 ± 0.33e 1.31 ± 0.04cd 76.88 ± 0.52b
Renio_Karyes 73.92 ± 0.24b 9.60 ± 0.34cde 3.88 ± 0.03b 21.56 ± 0.99e 10.36 ± 0.26abcd 1.15 ± 0.05d 76.63 ± 1.95b
Mavrodafni_KatwMylos 81.02 ± 0.91b 16.92 ± 0.30a 3.34 ± 0.02c 19.38 ± 0.85e 9.96 ± 0.03bcd 1.90 ± 0.11abc 80.49 ± 0.45b
Renio_KatwMylos 97.44 ± 1.32a 8.88 ± 0.27de 3.34 ± 0.01cd 38.90 ± 0.89c 12.08 ± 0.14a 2.31 ± 0.20a 65.44 ± 0.63c
Mavrodafni_Linos 80.16 ± 0.96b 18.16 ± 0.52a 3.28 ± 0.03cde 22.58 ± 2.60e 11.65 ± 0.44ab 2.11 ± 0.04ab 89.01 ± 0.43a

Sampling methods

Study extent: 

The vineyards, from where the samples were collected, are located in the greater area of Achaia (Table 1). The vines were selected for study via an assay of their polyphenolic profile on the basis of:

  • their being the most representative for each cultivar and
  • their morphology.
Sampling description: 

Grapes were randomly selected from different vines of each cultivar and three (3) sampling processes took place. The grapes were collected from the main shoots of different positions. Each sampling constituted one replication. A total of three (3) replications per treatment (cultivar) took place. The sampling process and samples preparation for spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses, as well as the data analysis described in Stavrakaki et al. (2018), were followed for the needs of this experiment. The various polyphenolic compounds analysed were identified according to their order of elution and the retention times of the pure compounds. The reagents and chemicals used were the same as in Biniari et al. (2018).

Step description: 

Measurements:

  • Bunch and berry mechanical properties (weight, length and width)
  • Measurement of total soluble solids, pH and total titratable acidity
  • Measurement of total polyphenol content in berry skins
  • Measurement of total anthocyanins in berry skins
  • Measurement of total flavonoid content
  • Measurement of total flavanols
  • Measurement of flavone and flavonol content
  • Measurement of total tannins in berry skins
  • Measurement of antioxidant capacity in berry skins

Geographic coverage

Description: 

The vineyards, from where the samples were collected, are located in the greater area of Achaia.

Coordinates: 

38.0568; 21.5984.

Temporal coverage

Data range: 
2017-1-01 - 2018-9-30.

Usage rights

Use license: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
Quality characteristics measurements
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
Mavrodafni and Renio quality characteristics measurements
Column label Column description
Samples Samples collected from the cultivars studied and related regions
pH Measurement: pH
Sugars (Brix) Total soluble solids measured in Brix
Total titratable acidity Total titratable acidity measured in g tartaric acid/l must
Bunch length (cm) Bunch length measured in cm
Bunch width (cm) Bunch width measured in cm
Bunch weight (g) Bunch weight measured in g
Skin total phenolics (mg catechin/g f.w.) Total phenolics of berry skin measured in mg catechin/g fresh weight
Skin total anthocyanins (mg malvidin/g f.w.) Total anthocyanins of berry skin measured in mg malvidin/g fresh weight
Skin total flavanols (mg catechin/g f.w.) Total flavanols of berry skin measured in mg catechin/g fresh weight
Skin total tannins (mg catechin/g f.w.) Total tannins of berry skin measured in mg catechin/g fresh weight
Skin total flavonoids (mg catechin/g f.w) Total flavonoids of berry skin measured in mg catechin/g fresh weight
Skin total flavones (mg rutin/g f.w.) Total flavones of berry skin measured in mg rutin/g fresh weight
Antioxidant capacity (mg trolox/mg f.w.) Antioxidant capacity of berry skin measured in mg trolox/g fresh weight

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: Mavrodafni and Renio quality characteristics measurements 
Authors:  Katerina Biniari, Ioannis Daskalakis, Despoina Bouza, Maritina Stavrakaki
Data type:  Excel file of the samples collected and the measurements performed
Brief description: 

This is the raw dataset of the measurements performed on the samples collected from the two varieties from the different locations. There are three repetitions per measurement and no statistical analysis has been performed.