Viticulture Data Journal : Data Paper (Biosciences)
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Data Paper (Biosciences)
Effect of the plot variability on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the berry's skins and seeds of grape cultivar Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L.)
expand article infoVictoria Verarou, Maritina Stavrakaki, Ioannis Daskalakis, Despoina Bouza, Katerina Biniari
‡ Laboratory of Viticulture, School of Agricultural Production, Infrastructure and Environment, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Open Access

Abstract

Background

Soil properties, climatic conditions and cultivation techniques constitute significant variables, which affect the quality of the final product. In particular, soil data (soil texture, soil electrical conductivity etc.) and weather data (average temperature, humidity etc.) affect both crop quality data (sugar content, anthocyanins content, phenolic compounds concentrations etc.) and crop quantity data (crop yield, berry weight and size etc.).

The aim of this study was to investigate the variations of the microclimatic areas that exist within the same vineyard and their effect on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the berry skins and seeds of the grapes. These microclimatic areas could be identified and classified as those which could produce grapes for PDO wines and those which could be used for the production of other types of wines.

New information

The overall results of this study indicated important differences between the grapes of different sub-zones from the perspective of their chemical analyses, namely with notable differences identified between the grapes in the anthocyanin concentration and mainly in the concentration of malvidin, acetyl and coumaric esters of malvidin.

A significant variability was observed in the characters of the must and in berry mechanical properties. More specifically, higher weight of berries was observed in the lower part of the vineyard, based on its slope. In the north-eastern part of the vineyard, a higher concentration of polyphenolic compounds was recorded. The concentration of total anthocyanins was found to be positively correlated with the soil slope, while significant variability in the concentration of total anthocyanins was revealed.

Keywords

anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, tannins, flavanoids, flavanols, flavonols, flavones, skins, seeds

Introduction

One of the most important viticultural areas of Greece is that of the Peloponnese, which includes the very famous Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) region Nemea where 'Agiorgitiko', one of the noblest and oldest Greek grapevine cultivars, is cultivated (Ministry of Agriculture 2018). This region is characterised by a significant variation of soils, even within the same vineyards, resulting in the production of wines which do not comply with PDO specification.

The expansion of the vineyards from higher, sloped landscapes (higher than 900 m) to new cultivation areas has resulted in the location of many newer planted vineyards at lower elevations and more fertile soils typically located between 750 and 800 m. The climatic conditions in these areas, as well as the productive potential of the soils, demand greater attention to vine management, including microclimatic aspects affecting health and maturation of grapes (Ramos et al. 2015).

The process of acquiring and using data during the implementation of Precision Viticulture is constant and repetitive. Therefore, it is possible to determine the appropriate plots within a vineyard in order to obtain viticultural products of high quality through selective harvesting, based on zones of similar soil properties (Bramley and Hamilton 2004, Bramley et al. 2005).

General description

Purpose: 

The aim of this study was to investigate the variations of the microclimatic areas that exist within the same vineyard and their effect on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the grapes. These microclimatic areas could be identified and classified as those which could produce grapes for PDO wines and those which could be used for the production of other types of wines.

Additional information: 



Experimental design

The vineyard where the experiment took place is located in Nemea. The row orientation is northeast-southwest and the training/trellis system is VSP (vertical shoot positioned) - cane pruning, double Guyot (Fig. 1). The vines are all grafted on rootstock Richter 110; are bilateral cordon-trained (bilateral Royat) at 2.2 m x 1.2 m intervals; and are spur-pruned to 2-node spurs. The usual viticultural techniques are applied, i.e. fertilisation using 11-15-15 NPK at a dose 250 g/vine; canopy management techniques (shoot thinning, topping; girdling); and irrigation.

Figure 1.  

Vineyard where the experiment took place.

Based on the phenotypic characteristics of the vines, as well as the soil differences in the different microclimatic areas of the vineyard, a section of the vineyard was divided in 3 plots (B, E, H) and each plot was divided into 5 cells (B01-B05, E01-E05 and H01-H05), which constituted the different types of treatments under study (Fig. 2). In these segments, measurements of photosynthesis and chlorophyll concentration took place during the different growth stages of the vines, as well as on harvest day (Table 6). Photosynthesis concentration was measured using a portable photosynthesis system (Li-6400XT, Li-Cor, Lincoln Nebraska, USA), while chlorophyll concentration was measured on the same leaves using a SPAD 502 (Konica Minolta, Europe). Samples of grapes were collected in order to measure their mechanical properties, followed by chemical analyses of the grapes, berries and must.

Characters of the grape juice

Plot

pH

Total titratable acidity (g tartaric acid/L grape juice)

Sugars (Brix)

Β01

4.08 ± 0.05bc

3.55 ± 0.03de

23.27 ± 0.64b

Β02

3.81 ± 0.02e

3.60 ± 0.12de

23.67 ± 0.29b

Β03

4.10 ± 0.01b

3.75 ± 0.00de

25.20 ± 0.00a

Β04

3.89 ± 0.00de

3.50 ± 0.12de

22.00 ± 0.00cd

Β05

4.09 ± 0.00bc

3.75 ± 0.00de

23.40 ± 0.00b

Ε01

4.27 ± 0.00a

4.50 ± 0.00bc

17.87 ± 0.07g

Ε02

3.83 ± 0.01de

3.38 ± 0.22e

18.97 ± 0.03f

Ε03

4.28 ± 0.00a

4.38 ± 0.12c

21.80 ± 0.00cd

Ε04

3.87 ± 0.00de

3.38 ± 0.00e

18.20 ± 0.00fg

Ε05

3.91 ± 0.00d

3.50 ± 0.12de

20.00 ± 0.00c

Η01

3.73 ± 0.00f

5.13 ± 0.12a

22.27 ± 0.07c

Η02

4.09 ± 0.01b

4.13 ± 0.22cd

23.87 ± 0.07b

Η03

4.08 ± 0.00b

4.63 ± 0.13abc

21.07 ± 0.07d

Η04

3.89 ± 0.00de

5.00 ± 0.12ab

17.47 ± 0.07g

Η05

4.02 ± 0.00c

4.63 ± 0.13abc

19.13 ± 0.07ef

Individual acid concentration in grape juice

Plot

Tartaric acid(mg tartaric acid/L grape juice

Malic acid(mg malic acid/L grape juice) Succinic acid(mg succinic acid/L grape juice)

Β01

5124.25 ± 95.73e

1173.48 ± 23.45f

3.49 ± 0.11def

Β02

5123.15 ± 93.93e

1164.78 ± 25.45f

3.50 ± 0.12def

Β03

5403.04 ± 8.86cde

1126.09 ± 79.84f

3.60 ± 0.05cdef

Β04

4440.00 ± 91.99f

1308.78 ± 6.98ef

3.99 ± 0.08bcd

Β05

6739.96 ± 245.16a

1777.17 ± 25.50b

4.34 ± 0.12bc

Ε01

5954.83 ± 106.74bc

1234.73 ± 17.95f

4.13 ± 0.20bcd

Ε02

6197.88 ± 112.78ab

2130.10 ± 134.40a

4.50 ± 0.08b

Ε03

5160.03 ± 15.88de

797.42 ± 27.54g

3.00 ± 0.13f

Ε04

5071.27 ± 155.01ef

841.80 ± 10.22g

3.19 ± 0.05ef

Ε05

6143.66 ± 100.45ab

1717.57 ± 21.47bc

3.91 ± 0.24bcde

Η01

6363.03 ± 109.89ab

1237.47 ± 1.50f

3.42 ± 0.01def

Η02

6058.85 ± 100.50b

1582.80 ± 41.30bcd

3.71 ± 0.18cdef

Η03

6726.75 ± 116.15a

1518.93 ± 24.35cde

4.51 ± 0.01b

Η04

6438.62 ± 134.51ab

1495.05 ± 19.61cde

4.49 ± 0.23b

Η05

5801.22 ± 184.65bcd

1362.69 ± 17.21 def

5.72 ± 0.20a

Seeds and skins total phenolics concentration

Plot

Seed total phenolics (mg gallic acid/g f.w.)

Skin total phenolics (mg gallic acid/g f.w.)

Β01

27.25 ± 0.61cd

7.23 ± 0.20bc

Β02

27.56 ± 0.48cd

6.95 ± 0.09bcd

Β03

26.42 ± 0.78cd

6.97± 0.11bcd

Β04

25.99 ± 0.39cd

6.25 ± 0.23def

Β05

27.46 ± 0.76cd

6.71 ± 0.20cd

Ε01

28.70b ± 1.84bc

7.53 ± 0.08b

Ε02

24.57 ± 0.85cd

9.30 ± 0.26a

Ε03

26.51 ± 0.09cd

9.15 ±0.08a

Ε04

27.72 ± 1.27cd

5.84 ± 0.02efg

Ε05

27.51 ± 1.39cd

6.23 ± 0.11def

Η01

24.64 ± 0.84cd

4.58 ± 0.04h

Η02

22.79 ± 0.85d

5.82 ± 0.17fg

Η03

33.71 ± 1.89ab

5.24 ± 0.12gh

Η04

38.64 ± 0.48a

6.65 ± 0.29cde

Η05

28.28 ± 1.55bcd

7.23 ± 0.04bc

Seeds and skins total tannins concentration

Plot

Seed tannins (mg catechin/g f.w.)

Skin tannins (mg catechin/g f.w.)

Β01

77.90 ± 3.59e

19.00 ± 2.14de

Β02

77.90 ± 1.45e

19.00 ± 0.37de

Β03

94.79 ± 0.83bcd

16.78 ± 0.88def

Β04

113.02 ± 1.34a

25.01 ± 1.29b

Β05

106.62 ± 1.60ab

25.03 ± 0.37b

Ε01

100.10 ± 4.23bc

33.10 ± 0.35a

Ε02

95.65 ± 6.49bcd

24.74 ± 0.17bc

Ε03

98.51 ± 2.06bcd

18.15 ± 0.65def

Ε04

86.10 ± 0.22de

18.79 ± 0.83de

Ε05

101.66 ± 1.05abc

16.35 ± 0.43f

Η01

93.61 ± 1.40cd

16.30 ± 0.10ef

Η02

73.79 ± 1.71e

14.40 ± 0.56f

Η03

77.32 ± 0.55e

20.86 ± 0.00cd

Η04

77.32 ± 0.22e

23.56 ± 0.35bc

Η05

94.40 ± 0.72bcd

18.98 ± 0.00de

Individual anthocyanins

Plot

mg malvidin/g f.w.)

mg acetyl ester malvidin/g f.w. mg coumaric ester malvidin/g f.w.

Β01

0.89 ± 0.02cde

0.05 ± 0.00cde

0.01 ± 0.01f

Β02

0.89 ± 0.02cde

0.05 ± 0.00cde

0.01 ± 0.01f

Β03

0.87 ± 0.00cde

0.05± 0.01cde

0.01 ± 0.00f

Β04

0.78 ± 0.00e

0.02 ± 0.00f

0.01 ± 0.00f

Β05

0.67 ± 0.00ef

0.03 ± 0.00ef

0.02 ± 0.00ef

Ε01

0.81 ± 0.08de

0.04 ± 0.00def

0.12 ± 0.03def

Ε02

0.46 ± 0.02f

0.03 ± 0.00f

0.16 ± 0.00d

Ε03

1.06 ± 0.07bcd

0.06 ± 0.01bcd

0.58 ± 0.05b

Ε04

1.11 ± 0.02bc

0.05 ± 0.00cde

0.58 ± 0.02b

Ε05

1.06 ± 0.03bcd

0.05 ± 0.00cde

0.15 ± 0.02de

Η01

1.06 ± 0.09bcd

0.06 ± 0.01bc

0.21 ± 0.01cd

Η02

0.93 ± 0.04bcde

0.05 ± 0.00cde

0.34 ± 0.01c

Η03

1.17 ± 0.07b

0.08 ± 0.00b

0.62 ± 0.01b

Η04

1.09 ± 0.02bc

0.08 ± 0.01b

0.68 ± 0.05b

Η05

1.44 ± 0.10a

0.12 ± 0.01a

1.01 ± 0.06a

Chlorophyll, photosynthesis and leaf temperature on harvest day

Plot Chlorophyll Photosynthesis

Temp -leaf

Β01

25.6 7.33 25.9

Β02

24.3 8.14 25.7

Β03

23.9 10.25 25.7

Β04

27.3 11.63 25.4

Β05

26.6 9.16 25.4

Ε01

29.0 6.03 25.8

Ε02

25.1 8.26 25.8

Ε03

28.0 9.26 25.9

Ε04

26.7 8.3 25.6

Ε05

29.6 5.99 25.6

Η01

24.9 5.87 25.7

Η02

23.4 10.77 25.6

Η03

26.5 9.33 26.1

Η04

29.5 4.14 26.4

Η05

28.9 4.65 26.2
Figure 2.  

Division of the vineyard in plots.

Results

The results showed that there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the grapes produced in the different microclimatic areas. The polyphenolic profile is affected even within the same grape variety by a series of variable factors, amongst which are the soil and climatic conditions of a given vineyard.

More specifically for this experiment, segment H5 (see Fig. 2) recorded the highest concentration in total anthocyanins and particularly malvidin, in skins total flavanols, skins total flavononoids, skins and seeds total flavones and flavonols with statistically significant difference compared to the other segments. Segment B3 recorded the highest concentration in total soluble solids and segment H3 recorded the highest concentration in total titratable acidity, with a statistically significant difference compared to the other segments. The highest concentration in tartaric acid was recorded in segments B5 and H3, while segment E2 scored the highest concentration in malic acid. Segment E1 presented the highest concentration in skins total tannins and B4 scored the highest concentration in seeds total tannins, with a statistically significant difference, respectively, compared to all other segments (Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, Fig. 3, Suppl. material 1).

Figure 3.  

Skins total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity comparison per plot.

Sampling methods

Sampling description: 

The collection of the grapes took place during the technological maturity of each cell. Grapes were randomly selected from three different vines of each cell. The grapes were collected from the main shoots of different positions. In each sampling, ten grapes were collected. Each sampling constituted one replication. A total of three replications per treatment (cell) took place. The sampling process and samples preparation for spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses, as well as the data analysis described in Stavrakaki et al. (2018), were followed for the needs of this experiment. The reagents and chemicals used were the same as in Biniari et al. (2018).

Step description: 

Measurements:

  • Bunch and berry morphological properties (weight, length, width)
  • Total soluble solids, pH and total titratable acidity of grape juice
  • Total polyphenol content in berry skins and seeds
  • Total and individual anthocyanins in berry skins
  • Total flavonoid content and total flavanols in berry skins and seeds
  • Flavone and flavonol content in berry skins and seeds
  • Individual organic acids in grape juice

Geographic coverage

Description: 

The vineyard is located in the area of Archaia Nemea (37°48'14.1"Ν, 22°41'39.6"Ε).

Temporal coverage

Data range: 
2018-1-01 - 2018-10-31.

Usage rights

Use license: 
Creative Commons Public Domain Waiver (CC-Zero)

Data resources

Data package title: 
'Agiorgitiko' quality characteristics measurements
Number of data sets: 
1
Data set name: 
'Agiorgitiko' quality characteristics measurements in the different plots
Column label Column description
Samples Samples collected from the different plots of the vineyard
Bunch weight (g) Bunch weight measured in g
Bunch width (cm) Bunch width measured in cm
Berry length (mm) (avg. of 10 berries) Average length of 10 berries measured in mm
Berry width (mm) (avg. of 10 berries) Average width of 10 berries measured in mm
Weight of 30 berries (g) Weight of 30 berries measured in g
pH of grape juice Measurement: pH
Total Acidity of grape juice Total titratable acidity measured in g tartaric acid/l must
Sugars of grape juice Total soluble solids measured in Brix
Total phenolics seeds (mg gallic acid/g fresh tissue) Total phenolics of berry seeds measured in mg gallic acid/g fresh tissue
Total phenolics skins (mg gallic acid/g fresh tissue) Total phenolics of berry skin measured in mg gallic acid/g fresh tissue
Total flavanols skins (mg catechin/g fresh tissue) Total flavanols of berry skin measured in mg catechin/g fresh tissue
Total flavanols seeds (mg catechin/g fresh tissue) Total flavanols of berry seeds measured in mg catechin/g fresh tissue
Total flavononoids skins (mg catechin/g fresh tissue) Total flavononoids of berry skin measured in mg catechin/g fresh tissue
Total flavononoids seeds (mg catechin/g fresh tissue) Total flavononoids of berry seeds measured in mg catechin/g fresh tissue
Total flavones and flavonols skins (mg rutin/ g fresh tissue) Total flavones and flavonols of berry skin measured in mg rutin/g fresh tissue
Total flavones and flavonols seeds (mg rutin/ g fresh tissue) Total flavones and flavonols of berry seeds measured in mg rutin/g fresh tissue
Total tannins skins (mg catechin/g fresh tissue) Total tannins of berry skin measured in mg catechin/g fresh tissue
Total tannins seeds (mg catechin/g fresh tissue) Total tannins of berry seeds measured in mg catechin/g fresh tissue
Tartaric acid in grape juice (g/L) Individual tartaric acid of grape juice measured in g tartaric acid/L must
Malic acid in grape juice (g/L) Individual malic acid of grape juice measured in g malic acid/L must
Ascorbic acid in grape juice (g/L) Individual ascorbic acid of grape juice measured in g ascorbic acid/L must
Succinic acid in grape juice (g/L) Individual succinic acid of of grape juice measured in g succinic acid/L must
Fumaric acid in grape juice (g/L) Individual fumaric acid of grape juice measured in g fumaric acid/L must
Total anthocyanins (mg malvidin/g fresh tissue) Total anthocyanins of berry skin measured in mg malvidin/g fresh tissue
Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (mg/g fresh tissue) Individual anthocyanin delphinidin of berry skin measured in mg delfinidin/g fresh tissue
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (mg/g fresh tissue) Individual anthocyanin cyanidin of berry skin measured in mg cyanidin/g fresh tissue
Petunidin-3-O-glucoside (mg/g fresh tissue) Individual anthocyanin petunidin of berry skin measured in mg petunidin/g fresh tissue
Peonidin-3-O-glucoside (mg/g fresh tissue) Individual anthocyanin peonidin of berry skin measured in mg peonidin/g fresh tissue
Malvidin-3-O-glucoside (mg/g fresh tissue) Individual anthocyanin malvidin of berry skin measured in mg malvidin/g fresh tissue
Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-acetate (mg/g fresh tissue) Αcetic ester of malvidin measured in mg acetic ester malvidin/ g fresh tissue
Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-coumarate (mg/g fresh tissue) Coumaric ester of malvidin measured in mg coumaric ester malvidin/ g fresh tissue

References

Supplementary material

Suppl. material 1: Agiorgitiko quality characteristics measurements 
Authors:  Victoria Verarou, Maritina Stavrakaki, Despoina Bouza, Ioannis Daskalakis, Katerina Biniari
Data type:  Excel file of the samples collected and the measurements performed
Brief description: 

This is the raw dataset of the measurements performed on the samples collected from grapevine cultivar 'Agiorgitiko' in the different sub-zones of the vineyard. There are three repetitions per measurement and no statistical analysis has been performed.